If so, how would you go about guarding against it have a deleterious impact? This favoritism has created ethnic and religious conflicts resulting in government-enforced discrimination. And concussion recurrence has been reduced, most likely by protocols guiding when it is safe to return to play. Learn more. All three?  Although concussions can carry serious consequences, they are termed a “mild” form of TBI because they are not typically life threatening. This has led some to suggest that the NFL is a modern plantation. They’re all in good shape. Utilitarianism is a family of normative ethical theories that prescribe actions that maximize happiness and well-being for all affected individuals.  Jesse Mez et al., Duration of American Football Play and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopothy, Annals of Neurology, 2019; DOI: 10.1002/ana.25611. Explain.  Everett J. Lehman et al., Suicide Mortality Among Retired National Football League Players Who Played 5 or More Seasons, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(10): 2486-2491 (2016). Bry believes that this will never happen. https://dc.law.utah.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1121&context=ulr, Sokol, Joshua, “Troubled Treasure,” Science, May 23, 2019. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/05/fossils-burmese-amber-offer-exquisite-view-dinosaur-times-and-ethical-minefield, Thiha, “Myanmar’s New Gold Mine is Dinosaur Amber, July 11, 2018. https://consult-myanmar.com/2018/07/11/myanmars-new-gold-mine-is-dinosaur-amber/, Xing, Linda et al., “A Feathered Dinosaur Tail with Primitive Plumage Trapped in Mid-Cretaceous Amber,” Current Biology, 26: 24, pl. Utilitarianism is a tradition of ethical philosophy that is associated with Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, two late 18th- and 19th-century British philosophers, economists, and political thinkers. Utilitarian? Myanmar classifies amber as a gemstone, not a fossil, so it can be legally removed from the country, unlike fossils that have restrictions on removal. They can suffer concussions from milder collisions than would be required to concuss a collegiate or professional player. Posts about examples of utilitarianism in today’s society examples of utilitarianism ethics real life examples of utilitarianism examples of utilitarianism in healthcare examples of utilitarianism in business exa written by T h e o • p h i l o g u e The ability to hold a piece of history untouched by time has resulted in a number of scientific discoveries and advances such as feathers on a non-avian dinosaur dated 99 million years ago and the biosynthesis of gene clusters for novel antibiotics. Similar to the ethics of care in business professional practices, virtue business ethics is a broad business theory that focuses on the character of the moral behavior of individuals rather than the rightness of the intended actions. BUSINESS ETHICS :: Utilitarianism • Introduction • Jeremy Bentham • Theory of Utility • Types of Utilitarianism • Some Criticisms • Moral Dilemma Introduction Over the course of the next two lectures we will be looking at two of the For a business to grow, it not only needs to increase its bottom line, but it also must create a reputation for being socially responsible.  Zachary Y. Kerr et al., Concussion Incidence and Trends in 20 High School Sports, Pediatrics 144(5): e20192190.  Ken Belson, Judge Approves Deal in N.F.L. If you took a utilitarian approach to answering this question, what would your reasoning look like?  Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019). While some researchers and universities feel as though they should refrain from making such amber purchases, their failure to participate enables many private collectors to remove collections from the public or to charge researchers an exorbitant fee for access. 36 short illustrated videos explain behavioral ethics concepts and basic ethics principles. > “Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.  Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain? In the early 1900s, Ideal utilitarianism was first used to demonstrate the belief that there’s more to good than is denoted by pleasure. Many people who are in favor of abolishing football or significantly reforming the way it is played are pro-choice when it comes to abortion, minor drug use, and assisted suicide. Utilitarianism asks the question: “What does a man have to do?” And briefly answers: “that which benefits him and others the most.” In 1789, Jeremy Bentham explained his theory of the “greatest happiness” in a publication of the Introduction to the Principles of Moral and Legislation by stating that human actions are as a result of pain and pleasure. Social justice is a concept holding that all people should have equal access to wealth, health, well-being, privileges, and opportunity.  Matt Ventresca & Mary G. McDonald, Forces of Impact: Critically Examining Sport’s “Concussion Crisis,” in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Ventresca & McDonald, eds., 2019). It is also the most common approach to moral reasoning used in business because of the way in which it accounts for costs and benefits. Some take the view that the NFL has acted like the tobacco industry did when it was confronted with lawsuits seeking to prove to juries that smoking caused cancer. Russell, Children and Dangerous Sport and Recreation, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 34: 176-193 (2007). We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. A policy issue? Utilitarianism holds that an action is right if it tends to promote happiness and wrong if it tends to produce sadness, or the reverse of happiness—not just the happiness of the actor but that of everyone affected by it. For many years this mining area has been protected by the Kachin Independence Army. Would you prevent kids under 14 from playing tackle football? Business analysts, legislators, and scientists weigh daily the resulting benefits and harms of policies when deciding, for example, whether to invest resources in a certain public project, whether to approve a new drug, or whether to ban a certain pesticide. This leaves a great deal of room for criticism, as people weigh in on individual theories, and how they relate to one another. The Three Generally Accepted Axioms of Utilitarianism State That, Utilitarianism's Relevance in a Political Economy, Everything You Need to Know About Macroeconomics. New Yorker writer Ingfei Chen observed that Fisher-Price had been required to recall a collapsible crib that was associated with 32 infant deaths. Utilitarianism is pervasive in contemporary business practice, management theory, and decision-making through cost-benefit analysis. Riding a bicycle carries risk and not a whole lot of parents are not letting their kids ride a bike.  Kathleen Bachynski & Daniel S. Goldberg, Time Out: NFL Conflicts of Interest with Public Health Efforts to Prevent TBI, Injury Prevention, at https://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/24/3/180.full; Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020; Mark Fainaru-Wada & Steve Fainaru, League of Denial: The NFL, Concussions, and the Battle for Truth (2013). The reality is that we still don’t know who is most likely to suffer a concussion, who will take longer to recover, how anatomic or genetic differences influence concussions, and who may be at risk of prolonged symptoms or developing cognitive problems later in life.”, Furthermore, many of the studies cited by those who would like to abolish tackle football have involved relatively small sample sizes. One expert said “It really seems right now that if your [football] practices are highly controlled and reduced as much as possible and you only play four years of high school, your [CTE] risk is probably pretty low.”. Utilitarianism is the most common kind of consequentialism, which is one of the three major branches of ethics. ; The Utilitarian asks a very important question: "How will my actions affect others? 1. Support your position with data and facts.  Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014; Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). This statistic is up 61% from 2002-2007, perhaps reflecting an improvement of awareness and reporting. A 2017 study found CTE in 21% of donated brains of deceased high school football players. A theory of ethical behavior, utilitarianism holds that an action is "right" to the extent that it benefits people or society, either by creating happiness, improving well-being, or reducing suffering. , A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is “a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury.” A concussion is a form of TBI where the blow causes the brain to move rapidly back and forth, bouncing around in the skull and suffering various types of structural damage. From being somewhere familiar and easiest to understand their decision-making processes 47 ] there is moral... 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