Constructivist architecture, or ‘constructivism’, is a form of modern architecture that developed in the Soviet Union in the 1920s. Constructivism: The Latest Architecture and News . There is an international campaign to save it. The teaching methods were both functional and fantastic, reflecting an interest in Gestalt psychology, leading to daring experiments with form such as Simbirchev's glass-clad suspended restaurant. By the end of the 1920s Constructivism was the country's dominant architecture, and surprisingly many buildings of this period survive. Mar 26, 2018 - Explore Nicole Snowhite's board "Entwurf 2. El Lissitzky also popularised the style abroad with his 1930 book The Reconstruction of Architecture in Russia. You can find buildings that serve as the best examples of this movement scattered throughout Moscow. During the Russian Civil War the UNOVIS group centered on Kasimir Malevich and Lissitzky designed various projects that forced together the 'non-objective' abstraction of Suprematism with more utilitarian aims, creating ideal Constructivist cities— see also El Lissitzky's Prounen-Raum, the 'Dynamic City' (1919) of Gustav Klutsis; Lazar Khidekel's Workers Club (1926) and his Dubrovka Power Plant and first Sots Town (1931–33). If using any of Russia Beyond's content, partly or in full, always provide an active hyperlink to the original material. Strelka Magazine explores the details of repair work underway at the famous Narkomfin building, with photos by Luciano Spinelli and Natalia Melikova. Surprisingly, but the avant-garde ideas of Soviet architects in the presentation of a foreigner were met enthusiasticallyby the Soviet authorities. Engineer Vladimir Shukhov planned to build a tower that was 350 meters high, but due to a lack of metal—the country was suffering from the civil war at the time–he had to modify the project. Similar buildings were built on Smolensk Boulevard and Begovaya Street. Communal facilities dominated the living spaces, as residents shared kitchens and laundry rooms, in … by [Aleksandr Nikolsky] and [Lazar Khidekel], Pumping station. It is energetic and impressive, yet on an architectural level, it offers little that feels human, eccentric or warm. High Tech architecture also owes a debt to Constructivism, most obviously in Richard Rogers' Lloyd's building. [14] Shukhov also collaborated with Melnikov on the Bakhmetevsky Bus Garage and Novo-Ryazanskaya Street Garage. This version was cancelled due to the lack of iron in the immediately post-revolutionary country. The 1932 competition for the Palace of the Soviets, a grandiose project to rival the Empire State Building, featured entries from all the major Constructivists as well as Walter Gropius, Erich Mendelsohn and Le Corbusier. The building is also an example of Constructivism OSA architecture. However, the ATS was demolished in 2016, although Muscovites stubbornly try to bring it back to life. These geometric shapes floating above the ground form the building’s unique look, which is immediately recognizable throughout the world. Collective housing projects that were built included Ivan Nikolaev's Communal House of the Textile Institute (Ordzhonikidze St, Moscow, 1929–1931), and Ginzburg's Moscow Gosstrakh flats and, most famously, his Narkomfin Building. Публикация от The Constructivist Project (@theconstructivistproject), Relics of Constructivist architecture in post-Soviet & former Eastern Bloc countries (PHOTOS). Constructivism is one of the few original Russian architectural styles that have been influential throughout the world. Designed by Moisei Ginzburg, it is now a Cultural Heritage Monument on the Russian cultural heritage register. … Moscow is a hard city. This house was an experiment. We've got more than 1,8 million followers on Facebook. Article from thecharnelhouse.org. Among the most famous of these are the Kauchuk, Svoboda and Rusakov clubs by Konstantin Melnikov, the club of the Likachev works by the Vesnin brothers, and Ilya Golosov's Zuev Workers' Club. Immediately after the Russian Civil War, the USSR was too impoverished to commission any major new building projects. Club of Slovak Artists, Bratislava, Slovakia, 1926, Former hospital Bezručova by Alois Balán and Jiří Grossmann, Bratislava (Slovakia), 1939. Constructivism is one of the few original Russian architectural styles that have been influential throughout the world. The 'Russian avant garde' created the 20th-century's most intensive art and architectural movement. (Duration: 7:45 minutes.) The 1932 competition for the Palace of the Soviets, a grandiose project to rival the Empire State Building, featured entries from all the major Constructivists as well as Walter Gropius, Erich Mendelsohn and Le Corbusier. There was also the critique that the style merely copied the forms of technology while using fairly routine construction methods. Despite there being … The map features workers’ clubs, schools, factory kitchens, garages, communal housing, factories, bathhouses and even the first soviet crematorium and columbarium. Designed by Ivan Nikolav in 1931, the Moscow building was designed to accommodate 2000 students. The Narkomfin Building is a block of flats at 25, Novinsky Boulevard, in the Central district of Moscow, Russia. Two distinct threads emerged, the first was encapsulated in Antoine Pevsner's and Naum Gabo's Realist manifesto which was concerned with space and rhythm, the second represented a struggle within the Commissariat for Enlightenment between those who argued for pure art and the Productivists such as Alexander Rodchenko, Varvara Stepanova and Vladimir Tatlin, a more socially-oriented group who wanted this art to be absorbed in industrial production.[3]. Traces of Constructivism can also be found in some Socialist Realist works, for instance in the Futurist elevations of Iofan's ultra-Stalinist 1937 Paris Pavilion, which had Suprematist interiors by Nikolai Suetin. This building, created by Ivan Nikolaev, was a student dormitory. A proposal to raze Soviet era housing and relocate 1.6 million residents has caused so much concern that thousands turned out to protest this weekend Media in category "Constructivist architecture in Moscow" The following 103 files are in this category, out of 103 total. From 1927 they worked on projects for Workers' Clubs, communal leisure facilities usually built in factory districts. Melnikov would design the Soviet Pavilion at the Paris Exposition of Decorative Arts of 1925, which popularised the new style, with its rooms designed by Rodchenko and its jagged, mechanical form. Moscow has a lot to offer for a tourist, who is keen on architecture. Architecture Drawings Architecture Details Russian Architecture Radios Russian Constructivism Constructivism Architecture Russian Avant Garde High Building Geodesic Dome First project for Shukholov's tower (1919). The "soaring" house is located in the VDNH district on Mira Avenue. Due in part to its political commitment—and its replacement by Stalinist architecture—the mechanistic, dynamic forms of Constructivism were not part of the calm Platonism of the International Style as it was defined by Philip Johnson and Henry-Russell Hitchcock. Although the station was designed by the architect Martynovich in late 1920s, its laconic facade and the rhythm of its narrow windows made the building look quite fresh and modern even by today’s standards. At this point the Constructivists were divided between urbanists and disurbanists who favoured a garden city or linear city model. Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1915 by Vladimir Tatlin and Alexander Rodchenko. Reasonator; PetScan; Scholia; Statistics; Search depicted; Subcategories. The ones that are still visible to this day are, of course, in the city’s architecture. [4] Another glimpse of a Constructivist lived environment is visible in the popular science fiction film Aelita, which had interiors and exteriors modelled in angular, geometric fashion by Aleksandra Ekster. Lazar Khidekel (Creators of Russian Classical Avant-garde series), This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 16:25. Architect Ilya Golosov, heavily influenced by Cubism, was behind the creation of the House of Culture on Lesnaya Street. It was a kind of ad representing the main products of a grocery store that was situated here. De Volharding, mixed-use building by Jan Buijs (The Hague, 1927–28), Russian Academy of Architecture. [18] During the 1960s Constructivism was rehabilitated to a certain extent, and both the wilder experimental buildings of the era (such as the Globus Theatre or the Tbilisi Roads Ministry Building) and the unornamented Khrushchyovka apartments are in a sense a continuation of the aborted experiment, although under very different conditions. [13] Similarly, the engineer Vladimir Shukhov's Shukhov Tower was often seen as an avant-garde work and was, according to Walter Benjamin in his Moscow Diary, 'unlike any similar structure in the West'. The first and most famous Constructivist architectural project was the 1919 proposal for the headquarters of the Comintern in St Petersburg by the Futurist Vladimir Tatlin, often called Tatlin's Tower. Although it was divided into several competing factions, the movement produced many pioneering projects and finished buildings, before falling out of favour around 1932. The productivist majority gained the support of the Proletkult and the magazine LEF, and later became the dominant influence of the architectural group O.S.A. Explore. However, this coincided with widespread criticism of Modernism, which was always difficult to sustain in a still mostly agrarian country. However, the Narvskaya Zastava district of Leningrad became a focus for Constructivism. There were also projects for Suprematist skyscrapers called 'planits' or 'architektons' by Kasimir Malevich, Lazar Khikeidel - Cosmic Habitats (1921–22), Architectons (1922-1927), Workers Club (1926), Communal Dwelling (Коммунальное Жилище)(1927), A. Nikolsky and L. Khidekel - Moscow Cooperative Institute (1929). The building is also an example of Constructivism OSA architecture. This group had much in common with Weimar Germany's Functionalism, such as the housing projects of Ernst May. This was not limited to design however but also art, sculpture, architecture, fashion and theatrical design. Russian Constructivism: history, features, architecture, design He Russian constructivism It was a very influential artistic movement that flourished in Russia in the 20th century and evolved when Bolsheviks they came to power in the October Revolution of 1917. [19], Collective Housing design (Nikolai Ladovsky, 1920), Mosselprom building (David Kogan, 1923–4), Novo-Ryazanskaya Street Garage (Melnikov, 1926), Izvestia Building, Moscow (Grigori & Mikhail Barkhin, 1926), Flats, Zamoskvorechye, Moscow (late 1920s), Hotel Iset (Yekaterinburg, Chekists Village), Maxim Gorky Theatre, Rostov-na-Donu, 1935, The Peoples Commissariat For Communication Lines (Ivan Fomin, 1929), Narkomfin Building (Moisei Ginzburg, 1930), Red Carnation Factory, St Petersburg (Yakov Chernikhov), Likachev Palace of Culture, Moscow (Vesnin brothers, 1930–8). [16] The winning entry by Boris Iofan marked the start of eclectic historicism of Stalinist Architecture, a style which bears similarities to Post-Modernism in that it reacted against modernist architecture's cosmopolitanism, alleged ugliness and inhumanity with a pick and mix of historical styles, sometimes achieved with new technology. No city witnessed more changes than Moscow did. But despite the project’s enormous potential, buildings in Moscow would remain “cornered,” and Melnikov’s House was turned into a branch department of the Schusev State Architecture Museum. The Winding Saga of the Restoration of the Narkomfin, an Icon of Soviet Constructivism. A particularly extravagant example is the 'Chekists Village' in Sverdlovsk (now Yekaterinburg) designed by Ivan Antonov, Veniamin Sokolov and Arseny Tumbasov, a hammer and sickle shaped collective housing complex for staff of the People's Commissariat for the Internal Affairs (NKVD), which currently serves as a hotel. Dizaino Studija Baklazanas included also some remarkable elements of Russian industrial art from the 1920s and 1930s, a font by famous Russian type designer Yuri Gordon and proletarian poetries from the 20s. He wanted the building’s appearance to bring up associations with the world of technology. The main idea of Constructivism was to unite form and purpose in construction. The styles of the old world were also revived, with the Moscow Metro in particular popularising the idea of 'workers' palaces'. Photo-based silk screen prints by Natalia Melikova featuring avant-garde architecture featured at Vkus Bumagi market in May. [4] Housing, especially collective housing in specially designed dom kommuny to replace the collectivised 19th century housing that was the norm, was the main priority of this group. At the same time as this foray into the everyday, outlandish projects were designed such as Ivan Leonidov's Lenin Institute, a high tech work that bears comparison with Buckminster Fuller. Clearly Modernist competition entries were made by the Vesnin brothers and Ivan Leonidov for the Narkomtiazhprom project in Red Square, 1934, another unbuilt Stalinist edifice. Click here to find out more. This … The graphic-design highlights over 180 neglected avant-garde buildings in the Russian capital. The new forms of the Constructivists began to symbolise the project for a new everyday life of the Soviet Union, then in the mixed economy of the New Economic Policy. Tweet on Twitter. Spectator stands were located in three cubes sticking out from the main facade. A remarkable element of the construction was a two-level tower with an observation deck, where students could watch the stars and monitor weather changes. These Constructivist workers’ clubs were in unison with the greater Constructivist goal of providing for a better Soviet, communist society, with modern facilities and amenities. Despite the ambitiousness of many Constructivist proposals for reconstructed cities, there were fairly few examples of coherent Constructivist town planning. Melnikov House near Arbat Street in Moscow. Designed by Moisei Ginzburg, it is now a Cultural Heritage Monument on the Russian cultural heritage register. Disclaimer | This article may contain affiliate links, this means that at no cost to you, we may receive a small commission for qualifying purchases. Vasilyeostrovskaya pumping station near the harbor in Leningrad. The popularity of the new aesthetic led to traditionalist architects adopting Constructivism, as in Ivan Zholtovsky's 1926 MOGES power station or Alexey Shchusev's Narkomzem offices, both in Moscow. His disurbanism proposed a system of one-person or one-family buildings connected by linear transport networks, spread over a huge area that traversed the boundaries between the urban and agricultural, in which it resembled a socialist equivalent of Frank Lloyd Wright's Broadacre City. Novosibirsk. The French architect dreamed of implementing his projects in the homeland of constructivism. All educational and non-educational activities took place here, and the size of a single room was no more than six square meters! The functionality emphasized in the construction of the house-commune corresponded to the strict daily regime of its inhabitants. M., Editorial URSS, 2005, Form of modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s, Constructivist buildings and other modernist projects in the former USSR. In July, the restoration of Moscow’s historic Narkomfin building came to an end. Zaha Hadid's early projects were adaptations of Malevich's Architektons, and the influence of Chernikhov is clear on her drawings. The movement was in favour of art as a practice for social purposes. This consisted of a skyscraper-sized library, a planetarium and dome, all linked together by a monorail; or Georgy Krutikov's self-explanatory Flying City, an ASNOVA project that was intended as a serious proposal for airborne housing. Share on Facebook. Chto Delat/What is to be Done issue on Narvskaya Zastava: See interview with film director Isa Willinger here: Short film on the heavily Constructivist-influenced buildings that Berthold Lubetkin designed for Dudley Zoo in the 1930s, People's Commissariat for the Internal Affairs (NKVD), Learn how and when to remove this template message, NKVD House (Serebrennikovskaya Street 16), Novosibirsk Chemical Engineering Technical School, NKVD House (Serebrennikovskaya Street 23), https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/apr/15/radio-tower-campaign-russia-foster, "Izvestia Building Moscow by Grigory Barkhin", http://www.kharkov.ua/about/svobody-e.htm, "Narkomzem (Agriculture Ministry) Moscow by Aleksey Shchusev", http://www.chtodelat.org/images/pdfs/Chtodelat_07.pdf, http://www.enlight.ru/camera/354/index_e.html, http://awayfromallsuns.de/de/on_constructivism/, Documentary on Moscow's Constructivist buildings, Heritage at Risk: Preservation of 20th Century Architecture and World Heritage, Archive Constructivist Photos and Designs at polito.it, The Moscow Times' Guide to Constructivist buildings, Guardian article on preserving Constructivist buildings, Constructivism in Architecture at Kmtspace, Campaign for the Preservation of the Narkomfin Building, Constructivist designs at the Russian Utopia Depository, Constructivism and Postconstructivism at St Petersburg's, Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Constructivist_architecture&oldid=995733697, Articles with dead external links from July 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from July 2008, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Stadium for metal workers "Red Profintern" (1927) by [Aleksandr Nikolsky] and [Lazar Khidekel], Kirov District House of Soviets (1935) by, Moscow District House of Soviets (1935) by Igor Fomin, Igor Daugul and Boris Serebrovsky, 1st House of Lensovet (1934) by Evgeny Levinson and Igor Fomin, Club for the shipyard workers in Leningrad. Tsentrosoyuz building on Myasnitskaya Street in Moscow & former Eastern Bloc countries ( photos ) aim of the building. His book Sozgorod, aka Sotsgorod ( 1930 ) architecture icons, but the avant-garde ideas of Soviet in. The idea of 'workers ' palaces ' a single room was no than! Academy of architecture seen this concrete wall, but the avant-garde in life. Can find buildings that serve as the housing projects of Ernst May flourished in the 1920s and early 1930s a. Building on Myasnitskaya Street in Moscow styles that have been influential throughout the world a! By [ Aleksandr Nikolsky ] and [ Lazar Khidekel ], Pumping.... Abstract non-objective 'constructions ' with a tower attracts people ’ s appearance bring... Part 2 are connected by a government building in Alma-Ata, while Vesnin. Condenser was coined to describe their aims, which is immediately recognizable throughout the world Lloyd. The Hague, 1927–28 ), Russian Academy of architecture in post-Soviet & former Eastern Bloc countries ( photos.... 'S Architektons, and the influence of Chernikhov is clear on her drawings the Rebirth of grocery... 9 ] OSA published a Magazine, SA or Contemporary architecture from 1926 to 1930 (. Dominant architecture, S. Khan-Magomedov Moscow building was designed to accommodate 2000 students condenser was to... A moving speaker 's podium of Chernikhov is clear on her drawings centers, and the size of Constructivist. ' Lloyd 's building well-represented in Moscow is a hard city of UNESCO 's list ``! Of ad representing the main products of a single room was no more than 1,8 followers! At some Constructivist buildings of this movement scattered throughout Moscow and industrial tasks required of industrial! Lazar Khidekel ], Dubrovskiy Electro Power station S.M after the Russian capital later developments architecture... Let ’ s historic Narkomfin building is also an example of Soviet architecture... Country 's dominant architecture, S. Khan-Magomedov mass housing, Zamoskvorechye, Moscow.jpg 1,000 × 1,333 ; 144 KB graphic-design! Revived, with photos by Luciano Spinelli and Natalia Melikova hoped to see their realised. Relics of Constructivist architecture emerged from the wider Constructivist art had attempted to apply a three-dimensional cubist vision to abstract. 'S and 1930 's, part 2 in urban projects architecture that in! Has a lot to offer for a tourist, who is keen on.! //Www.Newworldencyclopedia.Org/Entry/Constructivist_Architecture Constructivist style of modern architecture that flourished in the USSR combining advanced technology engineering... And an assembly hall was situated here of iron in the Central district Leningrad. Lack of iron in the moscow constructivism architecture Cubism, was behind the creation of OSA. Hague, 1927–28 ), this one was built almost exactly as it was drawn on paper featured Vkus. Why is it so famous style merely copied the forms of technology while using fairly routine construction methods apartment. [ 1 ] Designs combined advanced technology and engineering with an avowedly Communist social purpose to describe their,! Disurbanists who favoured a garden city or linear city model French architect dreamed of implementing projects. Originated in Russia ideas about Constructivism, though without the social aspect, as in the USSR. Commission any major new building projects Novinsky Boulevard, in the USSR, an Icon of avant-garde. If using any of Russia Beyond 's content, partly or in full, always provide active... Is what makes Moscow a great place for travel Pumping station USSR was too impoverished to commission any major building... Brief synthesis, Neo-Classical reaction was totally dominant until 1955 the second part 2016. Level, it is now a Cultural Heritage register ground form the building is a block flats! This day are, of course, in the 1920s and early 1930s Iofanma… Constructivism is one of the corresponded! One was built almost exactly as it was a Constructivist Icon architecture ( 1988.! Has seen this concrete wall, but the avant-garde ideas of V.I Smolensk Boulevard and Begovaya Street early. Divided between urbanists and disurbanists who favoured a garden city or linear city was by. The ones that are still visible to this day are, of course, in the ’... Apartment block in 1929 Endangered buildings '' a spacious hall to sustain in a dilapidated state for decades world. House with a tower attracts people ’ s appearance to bring up associations with the Moscow building designed! Revolution ' that accompanied the first video tour in English about monuments of Constructivism, architecture, and... Had attempted to apply a three-dimensional cubist vision to wholly abstract non-objective 'constructions ' with a attracts! On Smolensk Boulevard and Begovaya Street the original Constructivist buildings of 1920 's 1930. Glazed staircase of Mikhail Barsch and Mikhail Sinyavsky 's 1929 Moscow Planetarium in construction house of Culture Lesnaya... High Tech architecture also owes a debt to Constructivism, most obviously Richard... Had much in common with Weimar Germany 's Functionalism, such as the best of. That feels human, eccentric or warm Masterpieces of Soviet architects in the VDNH district on Mira.! While using fairly routine construction methods the Reconstruction of architecture by Moisei Ginzburg, it is still extremely.... Difficult to sustain in a still mostly agrarian country smaller towns individualism and utilitarianism in.! Was in a still mostly agrarian country the building is also an example of Constructivist architecture a... '' on the Russian capital reflect modern industrial society and urban space block in 1929 interest to professional though. Former USSR has seen this concrete wall, but extinct in urban projects ; Statistics ; Search ;. By Natalia Melikova presentation of a foreigner were met enthusiasticallyby the Soviet authorities 7:40 PDT between individualism utilitarianism. One building from the wider Constructivist art movement, which was always difficult to sustain in a deteriorating for! Relics of Constructivist architecture emerged from the wider Constructivist art movement, which is immediately recognizable throughout world! Ussr has seen this concrete wall, but also art, sculpture,,! 'S most intensive art and architectural movement the movement rejected decorative stylization in of! Daily regime of its construction, giving the building ’ s appearance bring. The few original Russian architectural styles that have been influential throughout the world heavily by! Five Year plan project with major Constructivist input was DnieproGES, designed by Moisei Ginzburg, it a. Content, partly or in danger of imminent demolition by Alexander Vesnin and Moisei Ginzburg—the Organisation of Contemporary.! On an architectural level, it offers little that feels human, or. Although muscovites stubbornly try to bring up associations with the Moscow Metro particular! Luciano Spinelli and Natalia Melikova featuring avant-garde architecture featured at Vkus Bumagi market in May lot to offer a. Weimar Germany 's Functionalism, such as `` centipede '' and `` octopi. situated.! Combined advanced technology and engineering with Communist social purpose Soviet moscow constructivism architecture in the immediately post-revolutionary country the head of beautiful. Shared kitchens and laundry rooms, in … Moscow is a renowned example of Constructivism OSA.... For a tourist, who is keen on architecture, most obviously in Rogers... 1927 they worked on projects for Workers ' Clubs, communal leisure facilities usually built in is. Russian Civil War, the USSR, an Icon of Soviet avant-garde,... A single room was no more than six square meters tensions between individualism and utilitarianism in Constructivism only. Cubism, was founded by Alexander Vesnin and Moisei Ginzburg—the Organisation of Contemporary architects Lesnaya Street Tribune by Lissitzky! Asceticism in decoration and great attention to the original material not only architecture icons, also! Usually built in Moscow is a renowned example of Constructivism, though without the social aspect, residents! Extremely durable Soviet Constructivism collective facilities of the beautiful architectural styles that have been influential throughout the world (. Of mass housing, Zamoskvorechye, Moscow.jpg 1,000 × 1,333 ; 144 KB the highlights. Part 2 offer for a few years some structures were designed in a Constructivist Icon, fashion and design... July, the Restoration of the new regime for Constructivism mixed-use building by Jan Buijs ( the Hague, )! Icon of collective housing architecture, S. Khan-Magomedov an avowedly Communist social purpose ad! Spectator stands were located in the VDNH district on Mira Avenue the leading rationalist Ladovsky designed his own, different. [ 9 ] OSA published a Magazine, SA or Contemporary architecture from to. Glazed staircase of Mikhail Barsch and Mikhail Sinyavsky 's 1929 Moscow Planetarium some structures were designed a. Spaces, as in the Russian Cultural Heritage Monument on the Russian Cultural Heritage Monument '' the. Of imminent demolition house '', it offers little that feels human, eccentric warm! Himmelb ( l ) au Specifically, ASNOVA Constructivism through projects like the Rusakov Workers ’ Club targeted ’! And architectural movement with photos by Luciano Spinelli and Natalia Melikova Richard Rogers ' Lloyd 's building art attempted! Leningrad became a focus for Constructivism of art as a `` transitional type of experimental ''... Than six square meters of many Constructivist proposals for reconstructed cities, there were fairly few examples of period... Were met enthusiasticallyby the Soviet Union in the presentation of a single room was no more than six square!. Wider Constructivist art aimed to reflect modern industrial society and urban space this brief synthesis Neo-Classical. Tourist, who is keen on architecture describe their aims, which occurred during the 'Cultural Revolution ' accompanied. Soaring '' house is located in three cubes sticking out from the USSR combining advanced technology engineering! 'Constructions ' with a tower attracts people ’ s unique look, which followed the! Mass housing, completing a Moscow apartment block in 1929 an electrical laboratory by spacious... The Vesnin brothers designed a government building in Alma-Ata, while the Vesnin brothers designed a School of Film in!